People have been arguing for a long time that the Earth is flat. Although few people still argue about this. An important version of this debate has shifted onto the universe. According to an astrophysics study, there are camps of “circle universe-ers” and “flat universe-ers” in the field of physics. Although it is worth noting that in this case, the “flat” universe is not very similar to the flat earth. According to a publication in the journal Nature Astronomy, the data on cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation was observed by the Planck Observatory which was left by the Big Bang. It indicated that the universe may be “curved”, similar to a balloon. The balloon is not flat. Another result of this study shows that the universe is closed, which contradicts many years of previous research and conventional wisdom. People may leave the Earth at high speed in a flat universe and never return to the starting point. Whereas in a closed or curved universe, the particles leave the Earth and move in a straight line and eventually return to their starting point.
The authors pointed out in the study that since Planck’s power spectrum favors a closed universe, most local cosmological observations (including baryonic oscillations) have higher inconsistencies than the general estimates. Therefore, assuming a flat universe may cover up the cosmic crisis. The different cosmic characteristics observed in the cosmic crisis seem to be contradictory. According to General Relativity theory, mass curves spacetime. This gives the overall mass of its shape, the universe determines. Indeed, scientists already know the “critical density” of the computational universe. The critical density is proportional to the Hubble constant square, which is used to estimate the age, size, and expansion rate of the universe. If the critical density of the universe is high than the actual density, then the universe will be predicted to expand forever because there is not enough material to stop it. This will create a flat and open universe.
However, if the density of the universe is greater than the critical density, then this means that it has sufficient mass to expand, which is suggested by the latest research using Planck data. A closed universe may end up in a situation called the “Big Crunch”, opposite of the Big Bang. The universe is in a state of contraction until it is again compressed to a single energetic point. The researchers came to this conclusion because they noticed the difference between concentration of dark energy, dark matter, and outward expansion of the universe while observing the data from the Planck Observatory. The study pointed out that a curved or closed universe can provide an explanation for this effect with the help of cosmic microwave background spectrum of Planck. This is now more inclined to have positive curvature.